Dr. Annie Joseph Kruger, MD, PhD

Dr. Annie Joseph Kruger, MD, PhD

Dr. Annie Joseph Kruger, MD, PhD

Languages: English
Fax: (877)-303-1462

Contact this Provider:

  • Gastroenterology
  • Hepatology
Conditions I Treat
  • abdominal bloating
  • abdominal distention
  • abdominal pain
  • abnormal amylase blood test
  • abnormal bowel movement
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Procedures I Perform
  • bravo ph test
  • colon polypectomy
  • colonoscopy
  • esophageal variceal band ligation
  • esophagogastroduodenoscopy (egd)
  • Show All
About the Provider

Board-certified in gastroenterology and internal medicine, Annie J. Kruger, MD, PhD, is a gastroenterologist specializing in a range of metabolic, infectious, and autoimmune liver diseases. In both her clinical and research work, she has a particular interest in understanding, managing, and developing new therapeutics for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and resulting conditions.

Dr. Kruger received her combined MD/PhD from the University of Massachusetts School of Medicine, following which she completed her Internal Medicine residency, Gastroenterology fellowship, and research post-doctoral fellowship at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Prior to medical school, she had received an MSPH in Immunology and Infectious Disease from Harvard University and worked as a consultant for the pharmaceutical and managed care industries for several years.
A committed researcher and the recipient of several foundation and NIH grants to date, Dr. Kruger’s work has appeared in GastroenterologyHepatology, Journal of Hepatology, Hepatology Communications and the Journal of Infectious Diseases, among other peer-reviewed publications. She is a member of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the American Gastroenterological Association.  

In her practice, Dr. Kruger believes in providing personalized care for each patient with a comprehensive approach to improving their health. Her approach involves effectively utilizing diagnostic tests to arrive at an accurate diagnosis, prescribing optimal medical treatments for each unique GI disease, and addressing patients' nutritional and psychosocial needs to arrive at the best clinical outcome for her patients. In addition to English, Dr. Kruger speaks conversational Spanish and Portuguese.

  • Fellowship Program: Massachusetts General Hospital (2018)
  • Residency Program: Massachusetts General Hospital (2013)
  • Medical School: University of Massachusetts (2011)
  • Graduate Education: University of Massachusetts (2011)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology
  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine

Kruger AJ. Can Macrophages in Cirrhotic Ascites Fluid Predict Clinical Outcome in Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis?. Gastroenterology. 2020 May;158(6):1540-1543. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.02.040. Epub 2020 Mar 2. PubMed PMID: 32135164; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7292615.


Tucker RD, Ciofoaia V, Nadella S, Gay MD, Cao H, Huber M, Safronenka A, Shivapurkar N, Kallakury B, Kruger AJ, Kroemer AHK, Smith JP. A Cholecystokinin Receptor Antagonist Halts Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Prevents Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Dig Dis Sci. 2020 Jan;65(1):189-203. doi: 10.1007/s10620-019-05722-3. Epub 2019 Jul 11. PubMed PMID: 31297627; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6946881.


Kim MY, Kruger AJ, Jeong JY, Kim J, Shin PK, Kim SY, Cho JY, Hahm KB, Hong SP. Combination Therapy with a PI3K/mTOR Dual Inhibitor and Chloroquine Enhances Synergistic Apoptotic Cell Death in Epstein-Barr Virus-Infected Gastric Cancer Cells. Mol Cells. 2019 Jun 30;42(6):448-459. doi: 10.14348/molcells.2019.2395. PubMed PMID: 31085812; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6602147.


Duan X, Liu X, Li W, Holmes JA, Kruger AJ, Yang C, Li Y, Xu M, Ye H, Li S, Liao X, Sheng Q, Chen D, Shao T, Cheng Z, Kaj B, Schaefer EA, Li S, Chen L, Lin W, Chung RT. Microrna-130a Downregulates HCV Replication through an atg5-Dependent Autophagy Pathway. Cells. 2019 Apr 10;8(4). doi: 10.3390/cells8040338. PubMed PMID: 30974864; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6523735.


Lidofsky A, Holmes JA, Feeney ER, Kruger AJ, Salloum S, Zheng H, Seguin IS, Altinbas A, Masia R, Corey KE, Gustafson JL, Schaefer EA, Hunt PW, Deeks S, Somsouk M, Chew KW, Chung RT, Alatrakchi N. Macrophage Activation Marker Soluble CD163 Is a Dynamic Marker of Liver Fibrogenesis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection. J Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 22;218(9):1394-1403. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy331. PubMed PMID: 29868909; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6151081.


Kruger AJ, Fuchs BC, Masia R, Holmes JA, Salloum S, Sojoodi M, Ferreira DS, Rutledge SM, Caravan P, Alatrakchi N, Vig P, Lefebvre E, Chung RT. Prolonged cenicriviroc therapy reduces hepatic fibrosis despite steatohepatitis in a diet-induced mouse model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatol Commun. 2018 May;2(5):529-545. doi: 10.1002/hep4.1160. eCollection 2018 May. PubMed PMID: 29761169; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5944590.


Salloum S, Holmes JA, Jindal R, Bale SS, Brisac C, Alatrakchi N, Lidofsky A, Kruger AJ, Fusco DN, Luther J, Schaefer EA, Lin W, Yarmush ML, Chung RT. Exposure to human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus in hepatic and stellate cell lines reveals cooperative profibrotic transcriptional activation between viruses and cell types. Hepatology. 2016 Dec;64(6):1951-1968. doi: 10.1002/hep.28766. Epub 2016 Oct 5. PubMed PMID: 27531241; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5116014.


Brisac C, Salloum S, Yang V, Schaefer EA, Holmes JA, Chevaliez S, Hong J, Carlton-Smith C, Alatrakchi N, Kruger A, Lin W, Chung RT. IQGAP2 is a novel interferon-alpha antiviral effector gene acting non-conventionally through the NF-κB pathway. J Hepatol. 2016 Nov;65(5):972-979. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.06.028. Epub 2016 Jul 9. PubMed PMID: 27401546; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5656012.


Mueller JL, Feeney ER, Zheng H, Misdraji J, Kruger AJ, Alatrakchi N, King LY, Gelrud L, Corey KE, Chung RT. Circulating Soluble CD163 is Associated with Steatohepatitis and Advanced Fibrosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2015 Oct 8;6:e114. doi: 10.1038/ctg.2015.36. PubMed PMID: 26448455; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4816035.


Kochupurakkal NM, Kruger AJ, Tripathi S, Zhu B, Adams LT, Rainbow DB, Rossini A, Greiner DL, Sayegh MH, Wicker LS, Guleria I. Blockade of the programmed death-1 (PD1) pathway undermines potent genetic protection from type 1 diabetes. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e89561. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089561. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 24586872; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3938467.


Kruger AJ, Yang C, Lipson KL, Pino SC, Leif JH, Hogan CM, Whalen BJ, Guberski DL, Lee Y, Unger RH, Greiner DL, Rossini AA, Bortell R. Leptin treatment confers clinical benefit at multiple stages of virally induced type 1 diabetes in BB rats. Autoimmunity. 2011 Mar;44(2):137-48. doi: 10.3109/08916934.2010.482116. Epub 2010 Aug 9. PubMed PMID: 20695765; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4172446.


Kruger AJ, Yang C, Tam SW, Hinerfeld D, Evans JE, Green KM, Leszyk J, Yang K, Guberski DL, Mordes JP, Greiner DL, Rossini AA, Bortell R. Haptoglobin as an early serum biomarker of virus-induced autoimmune type 1 diabetes in biobreeding diabetes resistant and LEW1.WR1 rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010 Nov;235(11):1328-37. doi: 10.1258/ebm.2010.010150. PubMed PMID: 20975081; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4172443.


Pino SC, Kruger AJ, Bortell R. The role of innate immune pathways in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2010 Apr;17(2):126-30. doi: 10.1097/MED.0b013e3283372819. Review. PubMed PMID: 20125005; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2905794.


Miller DM, Thornley TB, Pearson T, Kruger AJ, Yamazaki M, Shultz LD, Welsh RM, Brehm MA, Rossini AA, Greiner DL. TLR agonists prevent the establishment of allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism in mice treated with costimulation blockade. J Immunol. 2009 May 1;182(9):5547-59. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.0802077. PubMed PMID: 19380803; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2721273.

Practice Locations
  • 3800 Reservoir Road Northwest
    Building 2
    Washington, DC 20007
    View Map

    Phone: 202-444-8541
    Fax: 877-303-1462

Member of Medical Staff
  • MedStar Georgetown University Hospital
  • GHUCCTS KL2 Scholar (2019 - 2022)
  • MGUH Department of Medicine Pilot Grant Recipient (2020)
  • NIH NIDDK F32 Grant Recipient (2016-2018)